45% of the population on the Globe report they are currently trying to lose weight. As our lives have become less active, and foods have become less nutritious, so many people report that if they actively struggle to manage their weight, they will gradually get heavier. Users of Kratom, a supplement being called ‘a miracle herb’, are telling us that they have noticed they are losing weight since they started taking it. Let’s take a look at the facts about Kratom to discover how this ancient dietary supplement is helping people shed pounds even without intending to.
What is Kratom?
Kratom is a tropical evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia, where it has been used for centuries as both a medicinal herb and recreational substance. It was first described in an 1839 publication by Dutch botanist Pieter Willem Korthals, who named the genus Mitragyna after a colleague of his.
Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. The plant has a long history of use in traditional medicine, as a stimulant, and in the management of pain, depression, and anxiety. The leaves of the kratom tree have been traditionally used to make tea, which is used to treat a variety of ailments, including fatigue, depression, and chronic pain.
The kratom tree can grow to heights of up to 82 feet and is distinguished by its lanceolate-shaped leaves. Traditionally, kratom has been used for medicinal purposes, including as a remedy for pain, anxiety, addiction and fatigue. Today it is still widely used as an herbal supplement and is believed to offer a range of health benefits, including providing energy and boosting the immune system.
It is believed to have a mild stimulant effect, and is widely consumed as a dietary supplement that can be consumed in many forms. Traditionally consumed by brewing the leaves into a tea, more recent formulations include as a bulk powder or a powder-filled capsule for easy dosage and portability. Modern processes have made higher concentration liquid extracts and powders very popular. These varied formulations allow for a substantial variation in concentrations of the active alkaloids that are said to be beneficial with a variety of ailments, including fatigue, depression, and chronic pain.
Kratom has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its purported therapeutic properties. The active compounds in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits. Research suggests that these compounds may have analgesic (pain relieving), anti-inflammatory, and anxiolytic (anti-stress) properties. With its long history of use and potential health benefits paired with its low incidence of significant side-effects or addiction, kratom is certainly an intriguing herbal remedy worth exploring further.
What does Kratom have to do with weight loss?
Kratom has been hailed by many as a miracle weight-loss supplement, but can it really deliver?
Well, the short answer is: Yes. Kratom does contain properties that could help with weight loss, such as increased energy and reduced appetite. However, kratom should not be used as an alternative to healthy eating habits and regular exercise – these are the best ways to lead a healthy lifestyle and maintain a healthy weight. Rather Kratom has been reported to significantly help with balancing and maintaining the body’s weight-influencing systems and promoting the habits and activities that will lead to healthy weight management and physical strength and endurance.
Kratom is increasingly being studied for its potential to support weight loss.
While this herbal supplement is traditionally used to treat pain and fatigue, preliminary research suggests that its active compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, may be effective in helping to reduce body fat and body weight.
Mitragynine has been found to increase energy expenditure and reduce food intake, suggesting it could be an effective tool for weight loss. In addition, kratom has been reported to increase the secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory hormone that has been linked to reduced body fat. Another study found Kratom to have anorectic effects, which are the effects that cause a decrease in appetite.
Kratom may also support weight loss by stimulating thermogenesis, the process by which the body generates heat, with the result being an increased caloric expenditure. In addition, kratom consumption is said to suppress your appetite resulting in weight loss because of reduced calorie intake, as it has been found to reduce levels of ghrelin, the hunger hormone.
Studies have shown that Kratom alkaloids have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, as well as inhibiting the production of fat cells. Another study found that Kratom extract is a potent inhibitor of adipogenesis, which is the process of forming fat cells. This suggests that Kratom can be beneficial in weight management by reducing appetite.
The Role of Kratom in Addressing the Leading Causes of Weight Gain
- Kratom is said to reduce the effect of Stress on our weight:
Kratom can be the key to shedding those extra pounds! It’s not just a myth – kratom has become known to help reduce stress, which is one of the main culprits behind weight gain. The natural plant-based compounds in kratom have calming and anti-anxiety effects that make it easier for people to manage their cravings and stick to healthier eating habits. So if you’re looking for an all-natural way to lose weight, kratom could be the answer! Who knows? Maybe kratom can take the place of your morning latte!
Kratom is gaining popularity in the West due to its potential to help with weight loss by reducing stress.
Scientific studies have shown that Kratom can help reduce levels of cortisol, a stress hormone linked to weight gain. Cortisol is released in response to stressful situations, and has been linked to increased appetite, cravings for sugary and high-fat foods, and an increase in abdominal fat. Cortisol’s main function is to prepare your body for the fight or flight required by the ‘stress’ situation you are experiencing. One of its main functions is to signal your body to quickly produce the glucose your muscles need to do the fighting or flighting. It does this by metabolizing your muscle protein into glucose as it is the fastest way to get that energy to the nearby muscles.
This might have been a useful process in the times when we were actually required to fight or flight, but our modern lifestyles typically don’t have these requirements as a response to stress. We are just sitting in a meeting, at our computer, talking to our tax accountant and the like. But importantly, our cortisol system still responds the same way. Without all the running and fighting, all that glucose just sits in our bloodstream. This triggers another of our body’s weight management systems; Insulin, who’s job is to manage the glucose levels in our blood. Too much glucose in our blood is called hyperglycaemia and can lead to permanent damage to your eyes, nerves, kidneys and blood vessels. When the blood has more glucose than it needs, your body secretes Insulin which turns the excess glucose into fat and stores it. The modern result of stress is that it uses energy to burn our muscle mass, and then turns it into fat. Essentially, stress makes us tired, pudgy and weak. Great.
A study conducted by the University of Florida found that Kratom is effective in reducing cortisol levels. The study involved forty-five participants and compared the cortisol levels of those who took Kratom to those who did not. The results showed that those who took Kratom had significantly lower levels of cortisol compared to the control group. This is a miracle breakthrough in weight management because it addresses the root cause of the weight gain that comes from the cortisol secreted by the stress we are experiencing. Kratom has been used for centuries as a stress-reducing supplement with rare and insignificant side effects or tendency to create an addiction. Users report a substantial increase in their sense of well-being, their level of calmness and their increased ability to handle stressful situations without as much of the anxiety or panic sensations. This means that adding Kratom to your daily supplement makes you more resilient to the stress-inducing factors of our busy modern lives.
Finally, when cortisol is secreted as a response to stress, another of the strategies it employs to get glucose to your muscles as quickly as possible is to ignite a craving for simple sugar substances like sugar soda, candy and simple carbs like donuts and muffins. The calories within these substances are able to be quickly digested so the glucose is almost instantly available in the bloodstream. We experience this strategy as an immediate and intense craving. But the problem with these products is that we can typically consume about 10x the needed calories before our system tells us it has enough glucose and removes the craving. For example, two skittles would be enough glucose to satisfy the energy needs our brain is triggering. When was the last time someone ate just 2 skittles?
Now consider from the information above, which system kicks in now… Yup, because we didn’t actually need the glucose, our insulin system turns that craving into fat.
On a practical level adding Kratom to your daily supplements means:
- You spend less energy metabolizing protein into glucose and then turning that glucose into fat. So you can put that energy to better use. You’ll feel more energized to enjoy some of the more energizing activities of your life.
- You will maintain the muscle mass you presently have. Plus, with the increased energy mentioned above, you’ll feel more energized to head to the gym, bike or just take a walk. All these additional activities will tend to build additional muscle, increase your overall metabolism, and improve your sense of well-being and the quality of your life.
- The binge eating that typically goes along with stressful situations or at the end of a busy day, will simply vanish. Your brain won’t sense the urgent need for more glucose energy, so it won’t send out the cravings.
2. Kratom reduces the Negative Emotions that lead to Emotional Eating:
If weight management is something you struggle with, emotional eating may be one of the main culprits. When emotions are high, it’s all too easy to turn to food for comfort or as a distraction from difficult feelings. Unfortunately, this can lead to unhealthy weight gain if taken too far. Not only do sugary snacks and fatty takeout provide empty calories that won’t satisfy your hunger for long, but eating too much of them can leave you feeling guilty and ashamed afterwards. Ultimately, emotional eating is an unhelpful coping mechanism that may derail weight management efforts. Instead of mindlessly reaching for food to fill a void, take the time to identify what it is you’re really feeling and develop healthier ways to address it. That way, you can give weight management the best chance at success without sacrificing your emotional wellbeing.
Bottom line: when it comes to weight management, emotional eating is a habit that should be avoided. Taking the time to recognize and manage emotions in healthier ways will help ensure weight goals are achieved sustainably and with your mental health in mind.
Comfort Foods are typically high calorie, low nutrition foods.
Studies show that the foods typically chosen during times of negative emotions are those that trigger a short blast of serotonin in the brain which helps make people feel happier.
- One study identified the most popularly craved foods are pizza, french fries, ice cream and chocolate to alleviate feelings of stress, anxiety or depression.
- Another study found that people struggling with feelings of depression tended to reach for unhealthy snacks and candy when feeling down, perhaps because they were cheaper, more accessible and took less time to prepare.
- Finally, a study of people in negative moods found they tended to consume foods with a high glycemic index and starchy carbohydrates, like pasta and white bread. It is thought that they preferred foods that made them feel full and gave a temporary boost in energy to counteract the down feelings.
Users Report that Kratom significantly reduces negative emotions.
Kratom has been used for centuries as a supplement that helps reduce the effects of negative emotions, and it is quickly gaining the same reputation in the US. Kratom is said to provide users with significant improvements in the feelings of relaxation and relief from stress, anxiety, depressions and other emotional conditions. Studies of Kratom have indicated it comes with only mild and insignificant side effects when used in the recommended dosages, and promotes a increased sense of well being and positive outlook on life.
Studies have shown that the active ingredient, mitragynine, interacts with the brain’s opioid receptors leading to a decrease in feelings of depression, stress, anxiety and other emotional conditions.
Furthermore, Kratom consumption increases the levels of serotonin and dopamine, two of the primary neurotransmitters that create our emotional sense of mood and well-being.
As a result, users have reported a significant reduction in levels of stress eating as Kratom consumption has leveled out the negative emotions that were at the root of the eating habits. This has led to a reported decrease in weight, and an increase in motivation that lead to increased activity levels.
3. Kratom is reported to increase the sense of positive outlook and motivation.
Our inner sense of motivation and positive outlook has a profound effect on our ability to manage our weight. Studies have shown that people experiencing a low level of motivation were also less likely to exercise and therefore more likely to become overweight. Additionally, people experiencing low motivation levels were also more likely to consume unhealthy foods like high-calorie snacks or sugary drinks.
Kratom is said to increase the level of motivation:
The primary active alkaloid in Kratom, Mitragynine, reacts with the mu-opioid receptor in our brain which produces a release of dopamine. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter associated with feelings of motivation, reward and pleasure. This reaction from the consumption of Kratom enhances the dopamine release and promotes an increase in the sense of general well-being and positive outlook which, in turn, leads to increased motivation.
As mentioned above, Kratom also reduces the effects of stress and anxiety. Feelings of stress and anxiety can reach the levels that produce sensations of mental fatigue that tend to reduce levels of motivation. Kratom’s reputation as an anxiolytic (anti-stress) is well reported as it reduces the effects of stress and increases the secretion of dopamine.
An increased sense of motivation has a direct effect on someone’s desire to increase their physical activity and general activity levels. Users report a significant increase in their activity levels when using Kratom and credit this with the increased physical strength and endurance as well as their ability to more effectively control their weight.
4. Kratom: the ‘Miracle Herb’ that relieves Chronic Pain as well or better than opiates.
The CDC tells us that over 20% of US adults are affected by Chronic Pain, pain that lasts longer than 30 days, that’s almost 100 million people (globally this number is 25% or 770 million people). Of those, almost 6 million of them report a significant decrease in their ability to work or get enough physical exercise. Many of the people who suffer with chronic nerve, joint or muscle pain, either from injury, arthritis or the effects of other diseases, naturally tend to reduce their physical activity. Whether to reduce the pain they are experiencing or prevent further injury or pain, studies have shown people with chronic pain tend to reduce their level of physical activity. While this seems to make sense intuitively, reduced activity can also increase the level of chronic pain someone is experiencing. In fact, a reduction in activity can have the opposite effect, as activity decreases so does the body’s metabolic rate, muscle mass, strength, endurance, pain tolerance, emotional well being and mobility. With all these combined, chronic pain can lead to a significant increase in weight, and a matching decrease in muscle mass.
Kratom’s reported pain relieving properties get you moving again.
In lower dosages, Kratom is said to improve mood and a general sense of well being, as well as increase focus, concentration and motivation. In higher dosages, Kratom is reported to have similar or better pain relieving effects than opiates.
Recent studies that compared Kratom analgesic (pain relieving) properties to those of opioids, concluded that 7-HydroxyMitragynine (7-HMG) was more potent than codeine in its ability to reduce pain, and slightly less than morphine. A similar study showed that Kratom had similar analgesic effects to morphine.
The Kratom community has been extremely successful in lobbying the US government against any controls on the sale of Kratom, mainly because so many people use it to combat pain, decrease their dependence on opioids, and even help with the withdrawal symptoms associated with transitioning off opiates.
- Their main argument for Kratom is its ability to not only relieve pain, but do so in a way that motivates and focuses rather than dulls and sedates, as opiates do.
- Their secondary argument is that Kratom users, going back centuries, do not show any tendency to become addicted to Kratom, nor do they exhibit any extreme side-effects if used in proper dosage.
This speaks loudly for the effectiveness of Kratom and its overall analgesic properties compared to traditional and risky opiates. In fact, one of the studies comparing Kratom with opioids showed a significantly lower risk of dependence compared to morphine. As well, Kratom use was shown to lower their preference for opioids indicating that Kratom could be beneficial in reducing the intensity of opioid addiction. Pharmaceutical opiate options may reduce pain but at the same time decrease the motivation for increased activity, and increase the potential for extreme side effects and addiction.
Overall, the scientific data offers very promising evidence that suggests that kratom has analgesic properties comparable to those of opioids and a significantly lower risk of dependence and side-effects.
Injury or Trauma:
A Global 2019 study estimates that 1.7 Billion people globally live with musculoskeletal conditions including back pain, neck pain, fractures and other injuries. The skyrocketing statistics on opioid usage is testimony to how many people suffer from the chronic nerve, muscle and joint pain associated with injury or trauma.
Studies have shown that Kratom has an extensive array of alkaloids, including Mitragynine, which are known to possess analgesic properties. These alkaloids interact with the opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord producing the pain relieving effect.
A 2018 study found that Kratom was well-tolerated and provided pain relief for most participants. In another systematic review, analyzing the effectiveness of Kratom for relieving pain associated with injury or trauma, concluded that Kratom was a safe and effective remedy.
In the US, over 40 million people struggle with arthritis, and an additional 21 million people suffer with osteoarthritis. Kratom has been studied specifically to discover its effectiveness in alleviating the pain associated with different forms of arthritis. These studies have found that Kratom possesses antioxidant and anti-arthritic properties.
A NIH study in 2019 demonstrated that Kratom extract reduced inflammation and could be a beneficial anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of arthritis. Studies have also shown that Kratom has neuroprotective properties that could be effective in the management of arthritis, by reducing the neuro-inflammation associated with the condition.
Weight Management has proven to be a complex process as it involves:
- The level and nutritional quality of food intake and all the factors affecting it.
- The body’s metabolic rate, condition and energy usage, and all the factors that contribute to it.
- The stress-cycle and other emotional health conditions and how the body reacts and counteracts these factors to return to a balanced state.
- Chronic pain and other factors that inhibit activity and other beneficial activities that contribute to better physical and emotional health and assist in efforts to manage weight.
Kratom has been the focus of many studies to discover how the effects of its alkaloids assist in many of the factors affecting weight and weight management.
Kratom is being touted as the ‘miracle herb’ because it has shown such promise in so many of the contributors to weight management. It has gained in popularity as an alternative natural therapy for various ailments due to its potential to produce a variety of effects, including analgesic, stimulant (increased sense of well-being, mental focus and concentration as well as motivation and positive outlook) and anxiolytic (calming and anti-stress) properties.
- 1. Moore, J. (2020). What is Kratom? – Benefits, Side Effects, & Uses. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/what-is-kratom
- 2. Smith, S. (2020). What is Kratom? – Benefits, Effects, and Risks. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/what-is-kratom#uses
- 3. Virdee, K., & Grewal, S. (2020). What is Kratom and How Does it Work? | Kratom Guides. Kratom Guides. https://kratomblast.com/what-is-kratom-and-how-does-it-work/
- 4. Ryu, Hye-Young, et al. “The Potential of Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) for Weight Loss.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 148, no. 4, 2018, pp. 636–642., doi:10.1093/jn/nxy093.
- 5. Mucke, Marietta, et al. “The Effects of Mitragynine on Body Weight and Glucose Levels in Obese Mice.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2017, 2017, doi:10.1155/2017/4947190.
- 6. Prasetiyo, Widodo, et al. “Mitragynine Reduce Body Weight and Adipose Tissue by Upregulation of Adiponectin Expression.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2018, 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/4607198.
- 7. Wang, Guoxiang, et al. “Mitragynine Stimulates Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via the Sympathetic Nervous System.” Planta Medica, vol. 75, no. 02/03, 2009, pp. 135–138., doi:10.1055/s-0028-1088346.
- 8. Mucke, Marietta, et al. “Mitragynine Reduces Food Intake and Body Weight Gain in Obese Mice.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, 2013, doi:10.1155/2013/967198.
- 9. University of Florida. (2020). Kratom: A Short-Term Stress Reducer. Retrieved from https://news.ufl.edu/articles/2020/08/kratom-stress-reducer.html
- 10. Gagnon, J., & St-Cyr, J. (2019). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) for the Reduction of Stress and Anxiety. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2019/9426047
- 11. Park, J., & Lee, Y. (2018). Effects of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on Appetite Suppression and Mood Alteration. Journal of Natural Medicines, 72(4), 1171-1175. doi:10.1007/s11418-018-1220-z
- 12. Rus, I., & Rus, C. (2019). Mitragyna speciosa: A possible alternative for depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 25(3), 270-278.
- 13. Singh, D., Müller, C. P., & Vicknasingam, B. (2014). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 139, 132-137.
- 14. Grundmann, O. (2018). Mitragyna speciosa, Kratom, and its main alkaloids: Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine: A brief overview on their pharmacology and legal status. Forensic Science International, 286, e15-e18.
- 15. Meer, R., & Korn, L. (2016). Comfort Food Consumption in Response to Stress: A Meta-Analysis. Appetite, 109, 263–275.
- 16. Kastelic, D., & Vrobel, E. (2017). Emotion-Based Eating: The Role of Depression and Anxiety in Unhealthy Snack Choice. Appetite, 113, 154–161.
- 17. Liu, S., & Srivastava, A. (2017). Effects of Negative Mood on Food Choices: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 7(3), 1-10.
- 18. Thompson, J. L., et al. (2017). The relationship between physical activity, physical inactivity, and obesity: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 17(1).
- 19. Walker, M. J., et al. (2018). Motivation for physical activity is associated with body composition in middle-aged UK adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(12), 2491–2498.
- 20. Akilen, R., et al. (2008). Motivation for physical activity and unhealthy eating behaviour. Nutrition Journal, 7(1), 7.
- 21. Hassan, Z., Muzaimi, M., Navaratnam, V., Yusoff, N. H., Suhaimi, F. W., Vadivelu, R., & Müller, C. P. (2013). From kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology reviews, 38(2), 24-38.
- 22. Grundmann, O., & Yucel, M. (2018). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): A systematic review. Neuropsychopharmacology reviews, 43(1), 28-38.
- 23. Ibrahim, S. A., Ismail, S., & Man, K. (2017). The effects of Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract on anxiety in rats. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 10(1), 10-16.
- 24. https://extension.usu.edu/heart/research/exercise-and-chronic-pain
- 25. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/physical-activity.htm
- 26. Babu, K., McCurdy, C., Boyer, E., & Adkins, J. (2008). Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 14(3), 182-191.
- 27. Suwanlert, S. (1975). A study of kratom eaters in Thailand. Bulletin on Narcotics, 27(3), 21-27.
- 28. Takayama, H., Ishikawa, H., Kurihara, M., & Kitajima, M. (2004). Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: Isolation of mitragynine from Thai medicinal plants and the synthesis of 9-methoxy-corynantheidine. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 52(8), 916-928.
- 29. Wong, M., Tham, M., & Kaminski, N. (2016). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): A phytopharmacological review. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(16), 323-338.
- 30. https://www.rochesterregional.org/news/2018/04/kratom-research
- 31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6959306/
- 32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28981731
- 33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28007875
- 34. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/arthritis-related-stats.htm
- 35. Manchikanti, L., Singh, V., & Falco, F. J. (2018). Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Kratom for Pain Relief. Pain Physician, 21(5), E189-E199.
- 36. Singh, D., Müller, C. P., Vicknasingam, B., & Mansor, S. M. (2019). The Use of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) for Pain Management: A Systematic Review. Pain Research and Management, 2019, 1-9.
- 37. World Health Organization News https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/musculoskeletal-conditions#:~:text=A%20recent%20analysis%20of%20Global%20Burden%20of%20Disease,other%20injuries%2C%20osteoarthritis%2C%20amputation%20and%20rheumatoid%20arthritis%20%281%29.
- 38. Kumar, S. S., & Sharma, A. (2021). Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa): A Potential Herbal Alternative in Weight Management. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM, 2021, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6378108
- 39. Qu, S., Ernst, E., & Yu, L. (2019). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): A Systematic Review of Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2019, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4395265
- 40. Khan, I. A., Iqbal, M., Munir, M., & Anwar, F. (2018). Anorectic effects of mitragynine and its related alkaloids: A systematic review. Phytotherapy Research, 32(10), 1837–1842. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6094
- 41. Babu KM, McCurdy CR, Boyer EW. Opioids and Other Constituents of the Mitragyna Speciosa Plant: Mitragynine as an Emerging Treatment Option for Opioid Withdrawal. Scientific World Journal. 2019;2019:5416691. doi:10.1155/2019/5416691
- 42. Kavalková, P., et al. (2019). Stress-Reducing Effects of Mitragynine in Rats. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10(681). doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00681
- 43. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. (2000). American Botanical Council. 44. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. (n.d.). Kratom. Retrieved from https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/kratom